Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
https://www.iberoamjmed.com/article/doi/10.53986/ibjm.2022.0022
Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
Original article

Comparison of Cognitive and Behavioural Problems and Psychiatric Diagnoses in Preterm Born Children between 6-13 Years Old

Comparación de problemas cognitivos y conductuales y diagnósticos psiquiátricos en niños prematuros entre 6 y 13 años

Rahime Hülya Bingöl Çağlayan, Burcu Gökalp Ozcan, Mine Elagöz Yüksel, Irem Hamamcioglu Yanardoner, Veysi Çeri, Merve Minkari Tunçay, Fatma Çölkesen Pamukcu, Güneş Özen Urcan, Tuğba Erener Ercan, Burak Dogangün

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Abstract

Introduction: Despite the increased survival rates follow up studies of preterm born children have documented increased prevalence of neurodevelopmental disabilities and cognitive deficits. By using psychiatric assessment, we aimed to evaluate cognitive functions by comparing preterm born babies according to the week of gestation by comparing the scores of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Form (WISC-R) in childhood.
Material and methods: Children with a history of birth as preterm babies between 1998-2004 were included in the study. The children born between 27-36 weeks, currently 6-13 years old were admitted to the study. The controls consisted of healthy children chosen from the nearest primary school. The WISC-R test was administered to all children. Classification was made according to gestational age. The comparison of cognitive functions was performed by comparing the WISC-R scores of the preterm group and the control group.
Results: 238 children were included in our prospective study. (case group: 175 children, control group: 63 children). Because of the comparison of the WISC-R scores of the preterm and control groups, the WISC-R verbal score and WISC-R total score were found to be statistically significant between the preterm and control groups. In the analysis made according to the gestation age, no statistical significance was found between the WISC-R Verbal, WISC-R performance, and WISC-R total scores according to the week of gestation. No statistically significant difference was found in terms of previous and current psychiatric diagnoses.
Conclusions: While the WISC-R score was, found to be statistically significantly higher in the case group compared to controls. Our results differed from those in the literature that preterm children had a lower WISC-R score and it indicates the need to investigate this situation by further studies, even by different tests.

Keywords

Preterm; Cognitive functions; WISC-R Scores

Resumen

Introducción: A pesar del aumento de las tasas de supervivencia, los estudios de seguimiento de niños prematuros han documentado una mayor prevalencia de discapacidades del neurodesarrollo y déficits cognitivos. Mediante el uso de la evaluación psiquiátrica, nuestro objetivo fue evaluar las funciones cognitivas comparando los bebés prematuros según la semana de gestación comparando los puntajes de la Escala de inteligencia de Wechsler para niños-Forma revisada (WISC-R) en la infancia.
Material y métodos: Se incluyeron en el estudio niños con antecedentes de parto prematuro entre 1998-2004. Los niños nacidos entre 27 y 36 semanas, actualmente de 6 a 13 años, fueron admitidos en el estudio. Los controles consistieron en niños sanos elegidos de la escuela primaria más cercana. La prueba WISC-R se administró a todos los niños. La clasificación se hizo de acuerdo a la edad gestacional. La comparación de las funciones cognitivas se realizó comparando las puntuaciones WISC-R del grupo de prematuros y el grupo control.
Resultados: 238 niños fueron incluidos en nuestro estudio prospectivo. (grupo de casos: 175 niños, grupo de control: 63 niños). Debido a la comparación de las puntuaciones de WISC-R de los grupos de control y de prematuros, se encontró que la puntuación verbal de WISC-R y la puntuación total de WISC-R eran estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos de control y de prematuros. En el análisis realizado según la edad de gestación, no se encontró significancia estadística entre las puntuaciones del WISC-R Verbal, WISC-R de rendimiento y WISC-R total según la semana de gestación. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en términos de diagnósticos psiquiátricos previos y actuales.
Conclusiones: Si bien la puntuación WISC-R fue estadísticamente significativamente mayor en el grupo de casos en comparación con los controles. Nuestros resultados difieren de los de la literatura en que los niños prematuros tienen un puntaje WISC-R más bajo e indica la necesidad de investigar esta situación mediante más estudios, incluso mediante diferentes pruebas.

Palabras clave

Prematuro; Funciones cognitivas; Escala WISC-R

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Submitted date:
01/29/2022

Reviewed date:
02/20/2022

Accepted date:
04/30/2022

Publication date:
06/26/2022

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